Thursday, May 21, 2020
The play Ã¢â¬Å"Death of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬ by Arthur Miller is about the loss of personality as well as a manÃ¢â¬â¢s incapability to admit the change in himself and society. The play is a montage of memories, confrontations, dreams, and arguments that all make up the last 24 hours of Willy LomanÃ¢â¬â¢s daily life. The author uses the LomanÃ¢â¬â¢s family that comprises of Willy, Linda, Happy, and Biff to construct a constant cycle of contraction, denial, and order versus disorder. Willy was aware of both his family and social responsibilities and never lost sight of what society expected of him-- even after living a tortured life. Willy Loman had two mentors in life, a fellow salesman and his brother Ben who motivated him to achieve his dreams in life. The success of his mentors led him to create a distorted value system that he later passed to his two sons (Hays Kent, pp. 4). His two sonÃ¢â¬â¢s Biff and Happy were constantly affected by WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations in life. Although the play emphases on the psychological damage imposed on Biff, it also showed that Happy suffered due to his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs and attitudes. Linda, WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, although tries her best to be a perfect mother, goes to conflicting lengths to encourage her husband to succeed in his daily endeavors despite the challenges. She does this in times of crisis and their daily lives placing their sonÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation to a position of less important value. Willy Loman and his son Biff were old-fashioned since they were from the same social niche.Show MoreRelatedDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller1387 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAmerican play-write Arthur Miller, is undoubtedly Death of a Salesman. Arthur Miller wrote Death of a Salesman in 1949 at the time when America was evolving into an economic powerhouse. Arthur Miller critiques the system of capitalism and he also tells of the reality of the American Dream. Not only does he do these things, but he brings to light the idea of the dysfunctional family. Death of a Salesman is one of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s saddest tragedies. In Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s, Death of a Salesman, three major eventsRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller888 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDeath of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬ is a play written by Arthur Miller in the year 1949. The play revolves around a desperate salesman, Willy Loman. Loman is delusioned and most of the things he does make him to appear as a man who is living in his own world away from other people. He is disturbed by the fact that he cannot let go his former self. His wife Linda is sad and lonely; his youngest son Biff is presented as a swinger/player while his eldest son Happy appears anti-business and confused by the behaviorRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller1573 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesrepresents a character with a tragic flaw leading to his downfall. In addition, in traditional tragedy, the main character falls from high authority and often it is predetermined by fate, while the audience experiences catharsis (Bloom 2). Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s play Death of a Salesman is considered to be a tragedy because this literary work has some of the main characteristics of the tragedy genre. In this play, the main character Willy Loman possesses such traits and behaviors that lead to his downfall, and theRead MoreDeath of Salesman by Arthur Miller972 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the play Death of a Salesman by the playwright Arthur Miller, the use of names is significant to the characters themselves. Many playwrights and authors use names in their works to make a connection between the reader and the main idea of their work. Arthur Miller uses names in this play extraordinarily. Not only does Miller use the names to get readers to correlate them with the main idea of the play, but he also uses names to provide some irony to the play. Miller uses the meanings of someRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesArthur Miller wrote the Pulitzer Prize winning play Death of a Salesman in 1949. The play inflated the myth of the American Dream of prosperity and recognition, that hard work and integrity brings, but the play compels the world to see the ugly truth that capitalism and the materialistic world distort honesty and moral ethics. The play is a guide toward contemporary themes foreseen of the twentieth century, which are veiled with greed, power, and betrayal. MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s influence with the play spreadRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller949 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDeath of a Salesman can be described as modern tragedy portraying the remaining days in the life of Willy Loman. This story is very complex, not only because of itÃ¢â¬â¢s use of past and present, but because of WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s lies that have continued to spiral out of control throughout his life. Arthur Miller puts a modern twist on AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of ancient Greek tragedy when Willy LomanÃ¢â¬â¢s life story directly identifies the fatal flaw of the Ã¢â¬Å"American DreamÃ¢â¬ . Willy LomanÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic flaw can be recappedRead MoreThe Death Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller846 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA Dime a Dozen The Death of a Salesman is a tragedy written by playwright Arthur Miller and told in the third person limited view. The play involves four main characters, Biff, Happy, Linda, and Willy Loman, an ordinary family trying to live the American Dream. Throughout the play however, the family begins to show that through their endeavors to live the American Dream, they are only hurting their selves. The play begins by hinting at WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s suicidal attempts as the play begins with Linda askingRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller Essay2538 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesSurname 1 McCain StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Name: InstructorÃ¢â¬â¢s Name: Course: Date: Death of a Salesman Death of a salesman is a literature play written by American author Arthur Miller. The play was first published in the year 1949 and premiered on Broadway in the same year. Since then, it has had several performances. It has also received a lot of accordances and won numerous awards for its literature merit including the coveted Pulitzer for drama. The play is regarded by many critics as the perfectRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller2081 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages#1 Ã¢â¬Å"Death of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬ by Arthur Miller is a tragedy, this play has only two acts and does not include scenes in the acts. Instead of cutting from scene to scene, there is a description of how the lighting focuses on a different place or time-period, which from there, they continue on in a different setting. The play doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t go in chronological order. A lot of the play is present in WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s flashbacks or memories of events. This provides an explanation of why the characters are acting a certainRead MoreDeath Of Salesman By Arthur Miller1475 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesto death to achieve their so- called American dream. They live alone and there is no love of parents and siblings. They may have not noticed the America dream costs them so much, which will cause a bigger regret later. In the play Death of Salesman, Arthur Miller brings a great story of a man who is at very older age and still works hard to achieve his desire, which is the American dream. Later, he no tices that his youth is gone and there is less energy in his body. Willy Loman is a salesman, who
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Adolf Hitler was a brilliant man, in the sense that he could persuade the masses to conform to his ideologies so successfully. He was a master at the art of propaganda, which can be noted by reading his autobiography entitled Ã¢â¬ËMein KampfÃ¢â¬â¢, specifically the section discussing propaganda and mass rallies. In this section, Hitler discusses how to produce good propaganda and explains why his version of propaganda is so effective. An example of HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s propaganda would be his documentary film entitled Ã¢â¬ËTriumph of the WillÃ¢â¬â¢, which thoroughly demonstrates the profound effectiveness of his propaganda, which still impresses people living in the modern day. The overall theme of the film is GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s return as one of the great powers of the world, with Hitler as the new leader who will bring glory back to Germany. Through the eyes of an ordinary German in 1935, Ã¢â¬ËTriumph of the WillÃ¢â¬â¢ would almost certainly instill a great sense of pride as we ll as a hopeful feeling for the future of Germany. One would certainly be impressed by HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s speeches, as Hitler was a master at appealing to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s emotion. HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s speeches dug deep into the emotional core of one viewing the film, or attending those rallies and that is shown by the cheers and shouts that he would evoke from the people whenever he spoke. Furthermore, his speeches would allow an ordinary German to feel hope for a new and better Germany under HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s rule, this was crucial. considering the very low and chaotic times thatShow MoreRelatedEssay about Nazi Politics: A Work of Art1315 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesorganizational techniques allowed for a more hands on approach to politics and were in part responsible for the mass influx of popular support experienced between the years of 1928 and 1933. Organizational tactics allowed the party on a local level to determine what was and was not most pertinent in specific areas of Germany and allowe d the Nazis to focus their efforts accordingly. Nazi propaganda offices were...quite adept at tailoring themes or slogans to local audiences ... One such case occurredRead MoreDifferences Between Class, Religion And Politics1500 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesVolksgemeinschaft was another principle outlined very greatly in propaganda and that is overcoming old differences in class, religion and politics. Volksgemeinschaft essentially entails the creation of a collective national identity by encouraging people to work together for the benefit of the nation, and promoting Ã¢â¬Å"German ValuesÃ¢â¬ . The Propaganda Machine was essentially another tactic used for when the information and election tactics adaped at a local level, with a division of different electoralRead MoreNazi Propaganda Was A Well Know Thing During The Holocaust1800 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesNazi Propaganda was a well know thing during the holocaust. Hitler and Joseph Goebbels were the ring leaders. Hitler became the German chancellor, and in March of that year he appointed Goebbels the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s minister for public enlightenment and propaganda. Goebbels had complete jurisdiction over the content of German newspapers, magazines, books, music, films, stage plays, radio programs and fine arts. His mission was to censor all opposition to Hitler and present the chancellor and the Nazi PartyRead MorePropaganda During Ww21533 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPROPAGANDA BATTLES Though propaganda has never been a substitute for military strength, extensive resources, or skillful negotiation, it has often played an important role in wartime strategy.(Propaganda,1) Propaganda really influnced both sides of World War II. In this paper I will show why the Nazi party best benifited from the use of prapaganda. Adolf Hilter use it to turn people against jews, blacks and about every one else that was not German and he also use it to make people want to join NaziRead MorePropaganda and the Military Essay1106 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPropaganda and the Military Though propaganda has never been a substitute for military strength, extensive resources, or skillful negotiation, it has often played an important role in wartime strategy.(Propaganda,1) Propaganda really influnced both sides of World War II. In this paper I will show why the Nazi party best benifited from the use of prapaganda. Adolf Hilter use it to turn people against jews, blacks and about every one else that was not German and he also use it to make peopleRead MoreEssay on How Hitler Mantained his Power1757 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pageselements that were important in maintaining HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s power include propaganda, necessity of economic depression and the removal of other political parties in Germany. Interpretations A and B refute the view that consent was the most important element in maintaining HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s regime in power. Interpretations C and D however support the view that consent played an important element, albeit interpretation C was consent through propaganda. Hans Rothfels provides the most compelling evidence to prove thatRead MorePropaganda Techniques Used By Jacques Ellul1804 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAccording to philosopher Jacques Ellul, Ã¢â¬Å"Propaganda is a set of methods employed by an organized group that wants to bring about the active or passive participation in its actions of a mass of individuals, psychologically, unified through psychological manipulation and incorporated in an organization.Ã¢â¬ (Bytwerk, 3) Methods of propaganda range from films, such as Leni Riefenstahl s Olympiad and Triumph of the Will, to posters, marches, and sporting events. Propaganda is a means in which a group can controlRead MoreThe Influence of Television on American Society and Politics1709 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmore people harbored fear of the war, as the news companies portrayed it as horrific. Inevitably, the growing fear within the public started anti-war protests with many citizens showing up to rallies hoping to end the war and bring an e ra of peace. The American citizens felt panic due to the terrifying propaganda and false news, the army and witnessed harsh slander from the citizens and the media at home, and the American Government scrambled to deter anything the media said or projected about themRead MoreInfluence of Nazi Germany WWII Propaganda Films on the German Film Industry2192 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesalmost immediately began working on his propaganda strategy. Typically Ã¢â¬Å"propaganda targets a mass audience and relies on mass media to persuade. Propaganda is aimed at large numbers of people and, as such, relies on mass communication to reach its audienceÃ¢â¬ (Gass, 14). The Nazi party used film propaganda to brainwash the German people, distract them from the harsh reality of the Nazi party, and attempt to intimidate the enemy. Hitler knew propaganda entailed mass persuasion and he knew just how to getRead MoreThe Bolshevik Revolution of October 1917-Essay Review1428 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesProvisional GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to send Petrograd troops to the Galician front. Minister of War Kerensky felt that a successful offensive would lift the armyÃ¢â¬â¢s morale. In turn, the spirit of the army would see democracy through. Ergo, a triumph would rally the nation behind the new government, and enable Kerensky to Ã¢â¬Å"make short shrift of the Bolsheviks.Ã¢â¬ This would never come to fruition, since the offensive in Galicia was a disaster. Fitzpatrick argues that Russian High Command resisted Allied
string(35) " ready for appraisal of the tummy\." This scrutiny has been carried out on patients as a complete scrutiny. With the development of radiographer-led processs there is move towards giving a direct reply to put of the clinical indicants and inquiry and so orienting the scrutiny to suit this demand. The Ba sup can therefore moderately be split into a figure of Ã¢â¬Ësubexaminations Ã¢â¬Ë when the clinical image has a definite way. We will write a custom essay sample on Development Of Radiographer Led Procedures Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Upper high Ba sup, this scrutiny is used for patients who have high dysphagia or definite oesophageal symptoms, or have rather frequently had a normal OGD but there are still have diagnostic that mean: rather frequently a motility upset may be cause. The technique is the patient is asked to stand erect in the AP place on the fluoroscopic tabular array and keep the cup of Ba in their manus, normally the left, as farther turning of the patient is normally to the left. The arm will so lie clear of the bole, without the patient holding to negociate its motion around the escalating screen passenger car. The patient is turned into a sidelong place in order to get down with everyday appraisal of possible aspiration, if this instance the scrutiny should be terminated instantly. They are asked to take a normal sized for them mouthful of the liquid and keep it in their oral cavity until asked to get down. This is to give the operator a opportunity to focus on on the country of involvement and optimise the collimation. If the radiographic equipment allows, a frame rate of 3 per second is suggested as an initial pick, modern digital equipment can let recording of the screened image. This frequently a radiation dosage decrease by leting retrospective and repeated survey of the patients get downing action without returning to the rescreen missed actions, and besides allows a more existent clip appraisal to take topographic point. The patient is so asked to get down and the exposure is initiated. Real clip recording is terminated when the Ba bolus passes beyond the screened image or point of involvement. The AP position is the optimum for hypopharyngeal anatomy, it will be seen in individual and dual contrast images. This position can so be repeated at least one time more to guarantee there is consistence in the image, doing it easier to definitively place pathology. The patient is so turned into the sidelong place and the same process of taking a mouthful and get downing on petition is imaged. This position allows the posterior wall to be optimally viewed. The most common abnormalcies shown are relentless cricopharyngeal feelings or diverticulae, the most common diverticulum type being zenkers this occurs in the mid-hypopharynx and is more common in the older population. They are rather frequently termed hypopharyngeal pouches. The pouches can go rather big, frequently doing patients to be referred due to regurgitation of undigested nutrient some clip after they have eaten. They are besides frequently hard to endoscope as the range enters the pouch and can non be passed farther. The Ba sup can therefore rather frequently be the most appropriate trial for corroborating the presence and extent of this pathology. Oesophageal webs are besides best seen on the sidelong projection, shown on the anterior wall, although they are best viewed with rapid imaging sequences, they have been noted in 1-5 % of diagnostic patients and 12-15 % of dysphagia patients. Ba rium sup and the reflux appraisal is patient for this type of survey frequently present with clinical symptoms of GOR. They frequently have a feeling of retrosternal uncomfortableness and no other symptoms. Although pH monitoring is an effectual manner of rating GOR, there is non every bit yet a gilded criterion test.the Ba survey can still be utile as an adjunct to other trials, as some GOR patients may hold little suspension hernias that are non seen on endoscopy. These patients frequently have mucosal alterations in the distal tierce of the gorge, so the sup is used to see the part closely and detect the fundus to look into for herniation. Technique for this testes is AP and sidelong projections can be taken of the gorge as antecedently described for the Ba sup. A more utile position of the distal tierce of the gorge is provided by the erect left posterior oblique, taken after the patients is asked to get down. The Ba bolus is imaged as a column and athletics movies taken to demo the distal tierce of the distal tierce of the gorge. This allows mucosal rings and peptic stenosiss to be shown good. As the column base on ballss and the mucous membrane relaxes, spor movies can be taken this frequently shown oesophagitis. The patient is the asked to take the effervescent granules either dry or assorted with a little sum of H2O if dry is excessively hard, or other effervescent assistance, followed by the citric acid. It is of import to affect on the patient that these will bring forth gas in the tummy and may give them the feeling that they need to burp, it is imperative they do non yield to enticement and the best manner to avoid this is to state them to maintain swallowing. Advance account of this, giving grounds for its importance, will maximise conformity. The patient is so asked to get down another mouthful of Ba whilst in the LPO place and images can be taken of the lower gorge. This will give a dual contrast scrutiny of gorge, leting a good expression at mu cosal item. To observe marks of a suspension hernia or GOR, the fluoroscopic sofa is so placed horizontally and the patient turned to their right to measure reflux. Sport images of the country are taken. The patient is so asked to revolve through 360 at their ain gait, this will guarantee coating of all facets of the stomachic mucous membrane ready for appraisal of the tummy. You read "Development Of Radiographer Led Procedures Health And Social Care Essay" in category "Essay examples" Whilst they are executing this motion it is best to test sporadically in instance any extra lower oesophageal pathology is noted so that a athletics image of the lower oesopagus and gastroesopahageal junction can be taken. On finishing this tactic, farther images of the tummy are taken at cardinal phases: foremost, the patient is asked to turn to their left ( LOP ) where a athletics images is taken. Second, turned back to supine ( AP ) . Third, turned to their right ( RPO ) . And the patient is return ed to the vertical place, turned somewhat to their left and an erect ( LPO ) movie is taken to demo the distal orsophagus and the fundus of the tummy. To demo reflux really happening, the patient can be tilted caput downwards ( Trendelenburg place ) as this mimics stress reflux but, as this is an unreal place, it may hold limited bearing on the truth appraisal of the true extent of reflux. If reflux is demonstrated the freedom with which it occurs and the degree it attains should be note as this will be an assistance to the clinician in the appraisal of the patient. It is noted nevertheless, that reflux may merely happen in approximately a 3rd of diagnostic patient. Preparation of patient to all scrutiny upper piece of land is, the patien should hunger for least 6 hours before the scrutiny but 5 hours is considered equal by some. It is suggested that this should be the instance even if merely Ba sup is indicated, in instance positions of the tummy are found to be required, this avoi ds the patient holding to return for a 2nd scrutiny. All jewelry or artifacts illustration hearing AIDSs should be removed. Patient vesture should be removed and a patient gown should be worn. The patient should so be informed of the process they should have information with their assignment prior to go toing, so they can give their consent. Complication with instructions on the famishment period should be checked. ESOPHAGRAM PROCEDURE. Two common radiographic processs of the upper GI system affecting the disposal of contrast media are the esophagram, or Ba sup, buttocks it is sometimes referred to, and the upper GI series. Each of these processs is described in item, get downing the esophagram. An esophagram, or Ba sup is the common radiographic process or scrutiny of the pharnx and gorge, using a radiopaque contrast media may be used. The intent of an esophagram is to analyze radiographically the signifier and map of the get downing facets of the pharnx and gorge. No contraindications exist for esophagrams except possible sensitiveness to the contrast media used. The engineer should find whether the patient has a history of sensitiveness to barium sulphate or water-soluble contrast media. Because the gorge is empty most the clip, patient need no readying for an esophagram unless upper GI series is to follow. When combined with an upper GI, or if the primary interested is the lower gorge, readying for the UGI takes precedency. For an esophagram merely, all vesture and anything metallic between the oral cavity and the waist should be removed, and the patient should have on a infirmary gown. Before the fluoroscopic process a pertinent history should be taken and the scrutiny carefully explained to the patient. The first portion of an esophagram involves fluoroscopy with a positive-contrast medium. The scrutiny room should be clean, tidy, and appropriated stocked before the patient is escorted to the room. The appropriate sum and type of contrast medium should be ready. Esophagrams by and large use both thin and thick Ba. Extra points utile in the sensing of a radiolucent foreign organic structure are cotton balls soaked in thin Ba, Ba pills or gelatin capsules filled with BaSO, and marsmallows. After get downing any one of these three substances, the patient is asked to get down an extra thin Ba mixture. Because the esophagrams begins with the tabular array in the perpendicular place the footbo ard should be in topographic point and tested for security. Lead aprons, compaction paddle, and lead baseball mitts should be provided for the radiotherapist, ass good as lead aprons for all other forces in the room. Proper radiation protection methods must be observed at all times during fluoroscopy. Fluoroscopy with the room prepared and the patient ready, the patient and radiotherapist are introduced and the patients history and the ground for the test discussed. The fluoroscopic scrutiny normally begins with a general study of patients chest including bosom, lungs and stop, and the venters. During fluoroscopy, the technologist responsibilities in general are to follow the radiotherapist instructions, assist patient as needed, and hasten the process in any mode possible because the scrutiny in begun in the vertical or vertical place, a cup of thin Ba is placed in the patient left manus near to the left shoulder. The patient so is instructed to follow radiotherapist instructions r efering how much to imbibe and when. The radiotherapist observes the flow of Ba with the roentgenoscope. Swallowing of thin Ba is observed with the patient in assorted places. Similar place may be used while the patient swallows thick Ba. The usage of thick Ba allows better visual image of mucosal forms and any lesion within the gorge. The type of Ba mixture to be used, nevertheless, is determined by the radiotherapist. After the unsloped surveies, horizontal and Trendelenburg places with midst and thin Ba may follow. A patient is shown in place for an RAO projection with a cup of thin Ba. The throat and cervical gorges are normally studied fluoroscopically with athletics movie, whereas the chief part of the esophagus down to the tummy is surveies both with fluoroscopy and with postfluoroscopy overhead radiogram. Presentation of esophageal reflux is the diagnosing of possible esophageal reflux o regurgition of stomachic contents may happen during fluoroscopy or an esophagram. One or more of the undermentioned processs may be performed to observe esophageal reflux ; take a breathing exercising, H2O trial, compaction paddle technique and toe- touch manoeuvre. How to cite Development Of Radiographer Led Procedures Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples
Sunday, April 26, 2020
References Aghalino, S. O. (2004). ?Oil Mineral Exploitation, Environmental Deterioration and Public Policy in Nigeria?, Calabar Journal of Politics and Administration, 2(122), 39 ? 50. Ayaegbunam, E. O. (1998). ?Environmental Protection and Management Laws in Nigeria: The Constitutional Question?, in Osuntokun, A. (ed.), Current Issues in Nigerian Environment. Ibadan: Davidson Press. Coarse, R. (1990). ?Environmental Protection in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects?, in The African Review, 120(1 & 2). Ekanem, O. (2001). ?The Dialectics of Underdevelopment and Instability in Africa?, Calabar Journal of Politics and Administration, 1(1), 52 ? 66. Etikerentse, G. E. (1986), Nigerian Petroleum Law, London: Macmillan. Federal Office of Statistics, (FOS) (1996). Review of the Nigerian Economy, Abuja. Federal Environmental Protection Agency Decree No. 58 of 1988. Federal Environmental Protection Agency Decree No. 59 of 1992. Harmful Waste (Special Provision), Decree No. 42 of 1988. Ikein, A. A. (1990). The Impact of Oil on a Developing Economy: The Case of Nigeria, New York and London: Praeger. National Bureau of Statistics (2005). Living Standards Survey of Nigeria 2003/2004: A Draft Report, Abuja. NDDC Project File, 2003. p. 95. NDDC Regional Master Plan, 2004. Niger Delta Environmental Survey, NDES, 2003 Ndukwe, O. U. (2000). Elements of Nigerian Environmental Laws, Calabar: University of Calabar Press. TELL, February 18, 2008. TELL, August 18, 1997. The Guardian, Wednesday, February 16, 2000. UNDP (2006). Niger Delta Human Development Report, Abuja. World Bank Policy and Research Bulletin, April ? June, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2000.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
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Monday, March 2, 2020
James Longstreet - Civil War General James Longstreet - Early Life Career: James Longstreet was born on January 8, 1821 in southwest South Carolina. The son of James and Mary Ann Longstreet, he spent his early years on the familys plantation in northeast Georgia. During this time, his father nicknamed him Peter due to his solid, rock-like character. This stuck and for much of his life he was known as Old Pete. When Longstreet was nine, his father decided that his son should follow a military career and sent him to live with relatives in Augusta to obtain a better education. Attending Richmond County Academy, he first attempted to gain admission to West Point in 1837. James Longstreet - West Point: This failed and he was forced to wait until 1838 when a relative, Representative Reuben Chapman of Alabama, obtained an appointment for him. A poor student, Longstreet was also disciplinary problem while at the academy. Graduating in 1842, he ranked 54th in a class of 56. Despite this, he was well-liked by the other cadets and was friends with future adversaries and subordinates such as Ulysses S. Grant, George H. Thomas, John Bell Hood, and George Pickett. Departing West Point, Longstreet was commissioned as a brevet second lieutenant and assigned the 4th US Infantry at Jefferson Barracks, MO. James Longstreet - Mexican-American War: While there, Longstreet met Maria Louisa Garland whom he would marry in 1848. With the outbreak of the Mexican-American War, he was called to action and came ashore near Veracruz with the 8th US Infantry in March 1847. Part of Major General Winfield Scotts army, he served in the siege of Veracruz and the advance inland. In the course of the fighting, he received brevet promotions to captain and major for his actions at Contreras, Churubusco, and Molino del Rey. During the assault on Mexico City, he was wounded in the leg at the Battle of Chapultepec while carrying the regimental colors. Recovering from his wound, he spent the years after the war stationed in Texas with time at Forts Martin Scott and Bliss. While there he served as the paymaster for the 8th Infantry and conducted routine patrols on the frontier. Though tension between the states was building, Longstreet was not a avid secessionist, though he was a proponent of the doctrine of states rights. With the outbreak of the Civil War, Longstreet elected to cast his lot with the South. Though he was born in South Carolina and was raised in Georgia, he offered his services to Alabama as that state had sponsored his admission to West Point. James Longstreet - Early Days of the Civil War: Resigning from the US Army he was quickly commissioned as a lieutenant colonel in the Confederate Army. Traveling to Richmond, VA, he met with President Jefferson Davis who informed him that had been appointed a brigadier general. Assigned to General P.G.T. Beauregards army at Manassas, he was given command of a brigade of Virginia troops. After working hard to train his men, he repelled a Union force at Blackburns Ford on July 18. Though the brigade was on the field during the First Battle of Bull Run, it played little role. In the wake of the fighting, Longstreet was irate that the Union troops were not pursued. Promoted to major general on October 7, he was soon given command of a division in the new Army of Northern Virginia. As he prepared his men for the coming years campaigning, Longstreet suffered a severe personal tragedy in January 1862 when two of his children died from scarlet fever. Previously an outgoing individual, Longstreet became more withdrawn and somber. With the beginning of Major General George B. McClellans Peninsula Campaign in April, Longstreet turned in a series of inconsistent performances. Though effective at Yorktown and Williamsburg, his men caused confusion during the fighting at Seven Pines. James Longstreet - Fighting with Lee: With the ascent of General Robert E. Lee to army command, Longstreets role increased dramatically. When Lee opened the Seven Days Battles in late June, Longstreet effectively commanded half the army and did well at Gaines Mill and Glendale. The remainder of the campaign saw him firmly cement himself as one of Lees chief lieutenants along with Major General Thomas Stonewall Jackson. With the threat on the Peninsula contained, Lee dispatched Jackson north with the Left Wing of the army to deal with Major General John Popes Army of Virginia.Longstreet and Lee followed with the Right Wing and joined Jackson on August 29 as he was fighting the Second Battle of Manassas. The next day, Longstreets men delivered a massive flank attack which shattered the Union left and drove Popes army from the field. With Pope defeated, Lee moved to invade Maryland with McClellan in pursuit. On September 14, Longstreet fought a holding action at South Mountain, before delivering a strong defensive performan ce at Antietam three days later. An astute observer, Longstreet came to grasp that the weapons technology available gave a distinct advantage to the defender. In the wake of the campaign, Longstreet was promoted to lieutenant general and given command of the newly-designated First Corps. That December, he put his defensive theory into practice when his command repulsed numerous Union assaults against Maryes Heights during the Battle of Fredericksburg. In the spring of 1863, Longstreet and part of his corps were detached to Suffolk, VA to collect supplies and defend against Union threats to the coast. As a result, he missed the Battle of Chancellorsville. James Longstreet - Gettysburg the West: Meeting with Lee in mid-May, Longstreet advocated for sending to his corps west to Tennessee where Union troops were winning key victories. This was denied and instead his men moved north as part Lees invasion of Pennsylvania. This campaign culminated with the Battle of Gettysburg on July 1-3. In the course of the fighting, he was tasked with turning the Union left on July 2 which he failed to do. His actions that day and the next when was charged with overseeing the disastrous Picketts Charge led many Southern apologists to blame him for the defeat. In August, he renewed his efforts to have his men transferred west. With General Braxton Braggs army under heavy pressure, this request was approved by Davis and Lee. Arriving during the early stages of the Battle of Chickamauga in late September, Longstreets men proved decisive and gave the Army of Tennessee one its few victories of the war. Clashing with Bragg, Longstreet was ordered to conduct a campaign against Union troops at Knoxville later that fall. This proved a failure and his men rejoined Lees army in the spring. James Longstreet - Final Campaigns: Returning to a familiar role, he led the First Corps in a key counterattack at the Battle of the Wilderness on May 6, 1864. While the attack proved critical in turning back Union forces, he was badly wounded the right shoulder by friendly fire. Missing the remainder of the Overland Campaign, he rejoined the army in October and was placed in command of the Richmond defenses during the Siege of Petersburg. With the fall of Petersburg in early April 1865, he retreated west with Lee to Appomattox where he surrendered with the rest of the army. James Longstreet - Later Life: Following the war, Longstreet settled in New Orleans and worked in several business enterprises. He earned the ire of other Southern leaders when he endorsed his old friend Grant for president in 1868 and became a Republican. Though this conversion earned him several civil service jobs, including US Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, it made him a target of Lost Cause advocates, such as Jubal Early, who publically blamed him for the loss at Gettysburg. Though Longstreet responded to these charges in his own memoirs, the damage was done and the attacks continued until his death. Longstreet died on January 2, 1904 at Gainesville, GA and was buried at Alta Vista Cemetery. Selected Sources HistoryNet: James Longstreet Civil War: James Longstreet
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Multi-culturalism and the new regionalism in Southeast Asia (or ASEAN) - Essay Example Economic integration can be replicated in the political field but true growth of regionalism will come about through a coagulation of regional identities. Multiculturalism can contribute to creation of common identities and can thus provide a strong bond for the sustained growth of regionalism. The impact of multiculturalism in fostering regionalism and growth of ASEAN will thus form the central theme of this research. A realist approach with thorough analysis of data and study of primary as well as secondary sources will be adopted to arrive at specific answers to the key research questions. The rigorous approach thus adopted is expected to bring about a greater understanding of the phenomenon of multiculturalism in the specific context of South East Asian regionalism. The modern world is increasingly regionalized and globalized. This is posing greater challenges for individuals and nation states. Some of these are resulting in a clash of identities between individuals and states. Multiculturalism attempts to reduce these fault lines by bringing people closer together to melt different cultures and identities. Regionalism provides a geographical and political dimension to multiculturalism. However regionalism does not naturally imply assimilation of cultures. Multiculturalism needs stronger roots and deeper commitments than regionalism. Association of South East Asian Nations or ASEAN has emerged as an enduring regional phenomenon. It is a political and economic confederation based on the needs to protect and project economic and political power of the resurgent economies of South East Asia, such as Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia. Multiculturalism can also form a strong glue to bind together the people of ASEAN. Though it will be a long a slow p rocess, a multicultural ASEAN society would be far more homogeneous than it is today, thereby enabling peace and prosperity in the region more consistently.